Clan, Sept and Tartan
The word clan is Scots Gaelic, meaning children, offspring or descendants.
A clan is a family and not just a Highland family. Author Robert Bain contends that as far back as the sixteenth century Border families, such as the Rutherfords, were described as clans. The Scottish Parliament in 1587 passed an Act "for the quieting and keeping in obedience of the ... inhabitants of the Borders, Highlands and Isles," that contained a list of the clans that have Captains, Chiefs and Chieftains ... on the Borders, as well as, the Highlands. In the 12th and 13th centuries the concept of "clan" grew beyond immediate family to cover an extended network of people who felt that they had loyalties to a particular clan chief. People of the same lineage often settled in the same area. Sometimes the extension of the clan territory, and therefore the clan members, was achieved by conquest or by alliances or marriage. There was a Chief that was the ruler over the whole family. He was responsible for his people. He was the one that had to be sure that they had enough to eat and clothes on their backs. In return, they helped in what ever he needed them to do. If he called for the clan to gather for battle, it was their duty to respond by showing up. As the families became larger and moved to other surrounding areas to take up residence, they were still responsible to the Chief of the whole family. The Chief gives the Clan members protection and the Clan Members give their loyalty to the Chief.[Clan Scott Society-1995]
Eventually, as the Scottish monarchy became established and exercised control, the allocation of clan lands would be granted, or at least authorized, by the king. The clan chief had duties in relation to clan members, which included providing help and support, including the allocation of smaller parcels of land and property, and, in the absence of any other legal framework, resolution of disputes and exercising justice. The clan chief could also demand that clan members join him either in defending clan lands or on raids on adjoining territory to extend clan lands, steal cattle or provisions - or in revenge for an earlier attack by another clan. While the "election" of a chief could and did happen male succession eventually became the norm, although in more recent times a clan chief can be male or female. The clan system, as it had operated for hundreds of years, was essentially destroyed after the Jacobite Uprising in 1745/46 when many clans supported the claim of Prince Charles Edward Stewart to the throne of the United Kingdom.
THE SEPTS or the so-called "BROKEN MEN"
Clans consisted generally of "native men" and "broken men". The "native men" were those related to the Chief and to each other by blood ties. This blood relationship is an important fundamental in the clan system and was a strong element in the patriarchal system of government, all being bound together in a common interest. The clan also contained septs or branches composed of clansmen who had become powerful or prominent in some way, and founded families almost as important as that of the Chief. These "broken men" were individuals or groups who had sought and obtained the protection of the clan.--Source: The Clans and Tartans of Scotland by Robert Bain
The chiefly line of the clan Home, derived from the original patriarch, but was composed of ‘native men’ and ‘broken men’. The native men were the direct descendants of the original bloodline. The broken men were those individuals, from other clans that had been dispersed, who sought refuge in a particular glen and pledged allegiance to the local chief. They in turn intermarried with the native inhabitants so that their descendants also carried the genes of the clan. Therefore, a sept is a family name that can be related to a clan or larger family for various reasons. Usually this came about either through marriage or by a small family seeking protection from a larger and more powerful neighbor. The Rutherfords are related to the Homes by marriage and direct descent through the Clan Lauder.
As a sept of the Clan Home, we proudly wear the Clan Home tartan. The Clan Home and Clan Rutherfurd have an ancient and colorful association on the Scottish Borders. Both families served as squires to the powerful Black Douglases and today’s chief unifies these two clans with the name Douglas-Home. In July of 1436 Lord James Rutherford witnessed sasine to Sir David Home 1st Baron of Wedderburn. Later that same year on December 11th James Rutherford of that Ilk had sasine at Linlithgow, with Sir Alexander Home of that Ilk. These lords were brothers-in-law. James Rutherford was married to Christian Lauder and Marion Lauder her sister was married to Sir Alexander Home. Over 500 years later, David Douglas-Home, is the 15th Earl of Home and, thus, Chief of Clan Home and all its septs.
THE CLAN TARTAN
The word "tartan" comes from the Gaelic word for "across" or tarsuinn. It is also said to be of French derivation, tiretaine was a half wool and half linen cloth. Both have valid claims to the word, but history does not provide sufficient facts to support either strongly enough to be certain.
The roots of tartan are also described at the siege of Flanders where Scots mercenary were seen wearing "light coverings of wool in many colors". A woodcut from 1631 also shows Scots in the army of Gustavus Adolphus (the King of Sweden who, from 1611, waged a series of wars against Denmark, Russia, Poland and Germany) wearing what appeared to be tartan. One soldier is even seen to be wearing what was possibly the first recorded use of the kilt. Andrew Lord Rutherford was a general for Gustavus Adolphus.
The fame that tartan enjoys today can be trace to the defeat of the Jacobites in 1745. Following that defeat at Culloden, the wearing of tartan was banned, a situation that remained until 1782. This ban made the tartan enormously popular. Indeed, the reason the ban was lifted was as an inducement in the recruiting of Highlanders into the British Army.
In the early 19th century there were about 90 named tartans and today there are nearly 3000. Where did all these new tartans come from? The answer is simple and unromantic – they were invented. The first commercial weaver of tartan material was William Wilson and Sons of Bannockburn. Over the course of the 19th century, William Wilson and Sons invented hundreds of tartans often with the participation of family heads that had never used a tartan. The Rutherfurds, unlike other members of the Clan Home, did not participate in this effort. On the other hand, the Dunbars, Nisbet, Halyburtons and Douglases all are members of the Clan Home and carry their own tartans. Keep in mind that many Rutherfords are of the mind that Borders families never used the tartan, so why start now?
THE CHIEF OF THE CLAN HOME
Our union with the Clan Home [Hume] began following the reign of Henry VIII when his thug the Earl of Hertford destroyed many Rutherford land holdings, abbeys, churches and the town of Rutherford itself during the so-called "Rough Wooing". Lord Thomas Rutherford, 3rd son and eventual heir of James Rutherford [1460 - 1517] was one of the first Lords of Rutherford to make an alliance with the Homes [Humes]. The Homes [Humes] are the only family to have held the wardenship of a Scottish march through all of Scottish history. Lord Thomas Rutherford served as bailie for Sir Patrick Home of Polwarth after 9/16/1503. This connection became a tradition of the Eastern Scottish March, the Homes [Humes] were the wardens and the Rutherfords were the bailes of the March. We are also strongly connected by treaty and marriage to the Black Douglases. These two clan alliances were joined when the heiress of the Black Douglases married Lord Home. Our present chief is David Douglas-Home, the 15th Earl of Home. He is, by tradition, also the current chief of the Clan Douglas. Like the Clan Rutherfurd, the Douglases are today one of the many septs of the Clan Home. Therefore, Rutherfords who know their genealogical/historical connection with Scotland and the Clan Home [Hume] universally wear the Home [Hume] tartan.
The Homes [Humes] were the wardens of the March and the Rutherfords were the bailes. We Rutherfords are also connected by treaty and marriage to the Black Douglases, as are the Homes. Alexander, the 6th Lord Home, was a favourite of King James I of England and VI of Scotland, and was created 1st Earl of Home and Dunglass in 1605. These two clan alliances were joined when the heiress of the Black Douglases married Lord Home. The family acquired the lands of Douglas, Bothwell and others in Angus; however, the chief of Home could not also be the chief of the Douglases [according to the Lord Lyon]. Therefore, in 1875 the 11th Earl was created Baron Douglas. The present chief, David Douglas-Home, the 15 Earl of Home, became Earl when his father, the late Prime Minister of Great Britain and Knight of The Thistle, died on Oct 9, 1995. David Douglas-Home is, by tradition, the current chief of the Clan Douglas, as well as, chief of the Clan Home and Rutherford.
For those who care to wear the plaid the correct Rutherfurd tartan depends on what cadet a clan member comes from. There are two basic choices that could be made; the Home or the Douglas tartan. The Rutherfurds were in agreements of manrent with both clans over the centuries. The present chief of the Clan Home, of which the Clan Rutherfurd is considered a sept, is David Douglas-Home, the 15th Earl of Home. The Douglas-Home family unifies the historical and genealogical heritage of both clans. Earl Douglas-Home is also chief of the Clan Douglas and a member of the Council of Standing Chiefs. Therefore, the Rutherford choices for tartan hinge on a personal knowledge of genealogy and kin alliance; Douglas and/or Home. Those who don't know their cadet origins should default to the Clan Home tartan. [Home is pronounced “Hume”].
The inventions of the wool weaving factories of William Wilson and Sons, along with John Sobieski and Charles Allan Hay, are responsible for most of the "traditional tartans" on the market today. John Sobieski and Charles Allen Hay even claimed to be the illegitimate grandsons of Prince Charles Edward Stuart [Bonnie Prince Charlie] and in possession of a 16th century manuscript giving details of many original but previously unknown clan tartans. These included “long lost tartans” used by non-Highland families. Their whole story and their manuscript have been shown to be a fabrication, just like their tartans.
The final piece of the jigsaw in the new popularity of tartan was placed in 1822 when King George IV, encouraged by such as Sir Walter Scott [mother: Anne Rutherford] and others determined to promote the wearing of tartan, dressed himself from head to toe in scarlet Stuart tartan garb for a visit to Edinburgh. This royal approval elevated the wearing of tartan from a poor clansman’s badge of honor to that of an essential fashion statement, and thus an entire industry was born.
Therefore, there certainly is a Rutherford tartan. The first choice for any Rutherfurd or Rutherford would be the Home [Hume] tartan and second the Douglas. Borders clans did use tartans, but clan identification with a tartan is particularly a Highland custom. It has been argued that lowland and Borders families do not have tartans, but this is demonstrably untrue. Borderers and lowlanders may not have used the kilt after the 13th century, but tartan shawls and waistcoats were very common from that time forward. Please note that the oldest known artifact of Scottish tartan is called the "Falkirk Tartan" and is, by no stretch of the imagination, from the highlands. Here are a few of the Border and Lowland clans that have tartans as well: Abernethy, Alexander, Anstruther, Armstrong, Baille, Baird, Barclay, Beaton, Blair, Borthwick, Boswell, Bruce, Burnett, Cockburn, Colville, Cranstoun, Crawford, Crichton, Cunningham, Dalrymple, Douglas, Eliott, Erskine, Fleming, Gray, Haig, Hamilton, Hanna, Hay, Henderson, Hepburn, Hume, Keith, Kennedy, Kerr, Lauder, Lindsay, Lyle, Maxton, Maxwell, Melville, Montgomery, Murray, Nisbet, Pringle, Rutherford, Ruthven, Scott, Seton, Shaw, Sommerville, Stewart, Swinton, Turnbull, Wallace, Wemyss and Young.
As stated before, the first tartan choice for any Rutherfurd/Rutherford would be the Home [Hume] tartan and second the Douglas tartan. When Robert Burns was visiting Roxburghshire in 1787, Elizabeth Rutherford presented the poet with a fine grand kilt woven from the Rutherfurd [Hume] tartan. Of course, the Rutherfurd/Rutherford clan is from the Jedburgh area near the Tweed and definitely Borderers of great antiquity. While visiting the area, Robert Burns was reminded by Elizabeth Rutherford that her cousin, Sir Walter Scott, only wore the Hume [Rutherford] tartan from his mother's clan not the Scott of his father's clan. Anne Rutherford was the mother of Sir Walter Scott. Elizabeth's husband was also Sir Walter's cousin on the Scott side.
Mrs. Elizabeth nee Rutherford Scott (1729-1789) was a niece of Mrs. Alison Cockburn, she married Walter Scott of Wauchope House, near Jedburgh, Roxburghshire, where Burns visited them during his Border tour. Mrs Scott had sent Robert Burns a long verse epistle, offering him "a marled plaid", in token of her admiration of his work. Burns replied with his lively verse epistle, 'I mind it weel in early date'. Burns noted in his Border Journal that Mrs Scott "had all the sense, taste, intrepidity of face, and bold, critical decision, which usually distinguish female authors." “The Life of Robert Burns” by Rev. George Gilfillan, August 1886 - Burns in the South, West and North.
The "period of pacification" of the Borders families and clans made it possible for the highland customs to be maintained when Borders culture was being systematically destroyed. It was the Rutherfords, Humes, Douglases and Scotts who lived eyeball to eyeball with the English and suffered the most for it. The highland clans did not face the fury of protracted English hegemony as did the Border clans. Therefore, their distinct ways of dressing and their culture at large, which have become "Pan-Scottish" in a sense, only exist because many of their Borders and lowland cousins were cleared and killed acting as a buffer zone between them and the English. The hollow attempts of the English to regulate our culture, whether it be with invented district tartans, outlawed names or clearings, haven't worked.
Clan Hume Tartan
Clan Douglas Tartan
Sir James "The Good" Douglas, Lord of Douglas
BLACK DOUGLASES TO THE RUTHERFORDS OF HUNTHILL
-1. Lord William de Duglas, 1st Lord of Douglas d. aft 1100 Created Lord De Duglas by King Malcolm Canmore in 1057
David Hume of Godscroft "History of the House & Race of Douglas and Angus" Edinburgh Sir Robert Douglas. "Scots Peerage"
--2. Sir John de Duglas, 2nd Lord of Douglas d. abt 1145 A man of great note in the reign of King David I
Sir Robert Douglas Ed. by Wood. "Scots Peerage", The Douglas Nobility 1767. Sir Robert Douglas. "Scots Peerage" Vol I, pp-2,3. David Hume of Godscroft "History of the House & Race of Douglas and Angus" Edinburgh
---3. William of Douglas b. 1174 d. 1213 "The Complete Peerage" vol.IV, p.432
i. Douglas, Archibald of, b. 1213
----4. Archibald of Douglas b. 1213 d. 1240 "The Complete Peerage" vol.IV, p.432
i. Sir William of Douglas b. 1240 ii. Andrew of Douglas
-----5. Sir William of Douglas b. 1240 d. 1274 "The Complete Peerage" vol.IV, p.432
i. Hugh Douglas ii. Sir William "le Hardi" of Douglas
------6. Sir William "le Hardi" of Douglas d. 1298, London "The Complete Peerage" vol.IV, p.432. Died a prisoner in London.
i. Sir James "The Good" Douglas, Lord of Douglas ii. Hugh Douglas, Lord of Douglas iii. Sir Archibald Douglas
-------7. Sir James "The Good" Douglas, Lord of Douglas
"The Good Sir James" was a lifelong friend and supporter of the Bruce and died in Spain carrying the Bruce's heart to the Holy Land. Sir James had joined with the King of Castille in his crusade against the Moors and was killed leading a charge against an enemy force that far outnumbered his own. The Bruce's heart was recovered from the battlefield and returned to Scotland. Sir James "The Good" was killed in 1330. Sir James' body and Bruce's heart were returned to Scotland and laid to rest at St. Bride's Church and Melrose Abbey, respectively.
In 1330 a group of Scottish Knights and Templars under the commandership of Sir James Douglas take Bruces Heart to the Holy Land, but make a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostella in Spain, and take part in the first great successful battle against the Moors at Teba, Calavatra, (this is where the name Braveheart comes from when Douglas throws the heart of Bruce in a silver casket forward into the Moorish lines, and calls "go Braveheart and we, your Knights will follow"). Only four Knights survive and return to Scotland out of twenty-two. Two Sinclairs of Rosslyn die with the Douglas. Hay who brought back both the heart of Bruce and Douglas. The name of the family becomes Lockhart.
Sir James "The Good" Douglas, Lord of Douglas - Lord of Galloway Born: about 1286, Douglas Castle, Strathclyde, Scotland Died: August 25, 1330, by Moors in Spain, carrying Robert the Bruce's heart to Holy Land
"... the "good Sir James,' the friend of Robert Bruce, the most illustrious member of the Douglas family, and one of the noblest of the band of heroes who vindicated the freedom and independence of Scotland against the English arms. The romantic incidents in the career of this famous warrior and patriot would fill a volume. On the imprisonment of his father he retired to France, where he spent three years, 'exercising himself in all virtuous exercise,' says Godscroft, and 'profited so well that he became the most compleat and best-accomplished young nobleman in the country or elsewhere.' On the death of his father young Douglas returned to Scotland. His paternal estate having been bestowed by King Edward on Lord Clifford, he was received into the household of Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, with whom he 'counted kin' through his mother. He was residing there when Robert Bruce assumed the crown in 1305-6, and took up arms against the English invaders. Douglas, who was then only eighteen years of age, on receiving intelligence of this movement, resolved to repair at once to Bruce's standard. According to Barbour, he took this step secretly, though with the knowledge and approval of the patriotic prelate, who recommended him to provide himself with a suit of armour and to take a horse from his stables, with a show of force, thus 'robbing the bishop of what he durst not give.' Lesley, Bishop of Ross, however, makes no mention of force, and says Douglas carried a large sum of money from Lamberton to Bruce. He met the future King at Erickstane, near Moffat, on his way to Scone to be crowned, and proferred him his homage and his services, which were cordially welcomed. From that time onward, until the freedom and independence of the kingdom were fully established, Douglas never left Bruce's side, alike in adversity and prosperity, and was conspicuous both for his valour in battle and his wisdom in council. He was present at the battle of Methven, where the newly crowned King was defeated, and narowly escaped being taken prisoner. He was one of the samll band who took refuge, with Bruce and his Queen and other ladies, in the wilds first of Athole and then of Breadalbane, where for some time they subsisted on wild berries and the scanty and precarious produce of fishing and the chase. Barbour makes especial mention of the exertions of Sir James Douglas to provide for the wants and to promote the comfort of the ladies."
The Great Historic Families of Scotland by James Taylor
Burke's Peerage. Known to the Scots as "good Sir James" and to the English as "the Black Douglas", along with Wallace and Bruce, one of the three great heroes of Scottish Independence. [Burke's Peerage]
--------8. Archibald "The Grim" Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas and Lord of Galloway b. abt 1325 acceded: 1388 d. 12/24/1400 at Threave burial: Bothwell "The Complete Peerage" vol.IV,pp.432-433. m. 7/23/1362 to Joan Moray d. 8/1409 d/o Maurice Moray Earl of Strathearn and Joan Menteith m1. Sir Thomas Murray m2. 7/23/1362 to Archibald "The Grim" Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas
children: i. Marjory Douglas ii. Archibald Douglas 'Tyneman', 4th Earl of Douglas, b. abt 1370 iii. James Douglas 'the Gross', 7th Earl of Douglas
---------9. Archibald 'The Tyneman' Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas b. abt 1370 acceded: 1400 d. 8/17/1424, battle of Verneuil burial: 8/24/1449, Tours Cathedral Duke of Touraine, Marechal of France "The Complete Peerage" vol.IV,p.432-434 m. bef 1390 to Margaret Stuart
children: i. Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Douglas, b. abt 1390 ii. James Douglas, Earl of Douglas iii. Elizabeth Douglas iv. William Douglas v. Mary Douglas m. Sir Simon Glendonwyn of Glendonwyn
----------10. Mary Douglas d/o Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas, Duke of Tourraine and Margaret Stewart d/o John Stewart, King Robert III of Scots m. (1406-7) Sir Simon Glendonwyn of Glendonwyn (b c1378, d 1437)
-----------11. Sir Simon (William) Glendonwyn of Glendonwyn and Parton (a 1455) m2. Elizabeth Lindsay d/o Alexander Lindsay, 2nd Earl of Crawford and Marjory (Margaret) Dunbar
parents: Alexander Lindsay, 2nd Earl of Crawford born: abt 1387 in Glenesk, Angusshire, Scotland died: 13 January 1445/46
He was knighted at the coronation of King James in 1424, and was a hostage for the King, being detained at the Tower of London, York, and Pontefract 1424-27. He was ambassador to England 1430-31. His father, Sir David Lindsay, 1st Earl of Crawford was the famous knight who defeated Lord Welles in a joust on London Bridge on the Feast of St. George, 1390.
Alexander Lindsay's aunt, also Elizabeth Lindsay was the wife of Lord Robert Erskine, ancestor of the Edgerston Rutherfurds.
Alexander Lindsay's aunt, Agnes Dunbar, was the wife of Sir James Douglas - 1st Lord of Dalkeith a descendant of the Bruce family. It was through this line that Hunthill was given by Robert the Bruce to Sir Thomas Randolph and passed through the Randolph, Dunbar and Douglas families to the Rutherfords. [see below]. Agnes Dunbar was also the great great aunt of Sir Simon Glendonwyn.
Alexander Lindsay's mother was Elizabeth Stewart, d/o Robert II Stewart, King of Scotland and Queen Eupheme of Ross
------------12. Margaret Glendonwyn m. Robert Rutherford of Chatto (a 1484, d before 05.1495) who acquired Hunthill by marriage had confirmation of his late father's gift of Nether Chatto November 21, 1429 from Archibald 4th Earl of Douglas, as his dear esquire (RCh), with Crown confirmation March 25, 1439 (Ib; not in GS).
i. George Rutherford I of Hunthill
ii. Richard Rutherford of Glennysland
iii. Margaret Rutherford m. Hugh [John] Wallace of Craigie and had joint charter of Thuriston and Woodhall, Renfs., Sept. 22, 1505 (GS II N.2883). The date however means a later generation, and if really of this family she might be a sister of George II of Hunthill. She was presumably the Dame Margaret who raised letters of citation against James Kennedy and another executor of the late Katherine Kennedy, lady of Cragy, at Ayr in Dec. 1520 (Ros N.437).
iv. Helen Rutherford m. Philip Nisbet of that Ilk and had joint charter of Birghamshiels, Berws., Jan. 20, 1506/7 (GS II N.3028; HT III, 233), a date far too late for a dau. of Robert.
v. Robert Rutherford of Chatto